Smart Investments: Diversify your portfolio with REITS & InvITs

2021年12月14日 0 Comments

The Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs) and Infrastructure Investment Trusts (InvlTs) collect a large pool of funds from investors and invest the same in the realty\/infrastructure projects to generate income. So, their functioning is almost similar to mutual funds in India. How REITs InvlTs work REITs own and operate completed or under-construction properties which have the potential to generate income. The properties can be residential or commercial such as apartments, warehouses, offices, etc. Investors get regular income as well as long-term capital appreciation. The Securities and Exchange Board of India (Sebi) mandates REITs to invest at least 80% of their assets in completed and income-generating properties. The REITs are required to distribute 90% of their cash flow to shareholders and investors. REITs can also be placed into two categories The InvITs, on the other hand, own and operate huge infrastructure assets like bridges, highways, roads, pipelines, power plants, etc. and 80% of their assets are compulsorily invested in completed and revenue-generating projects. The InvITs also need to distribute 90% of their income to their investors Benefits of REITs and InvlTs By choosing REITs and InvITs, investors can participate in growing sectors like real estate and infrastructure without worrying about maintenance, title, stamp duty, and other expenses. These are new-age investment instruments helping investors to diversify their portfolios. These can generate a source of regular income through dividends and have the potential to provide attractive capital appreciation. Their ticket sizes are small, and the liquidity is much higher than a direct investment in the realty market or infrastructure project. Plus, Sebi regulates REITs and InvITs; therefore, the chances of fraud are lesser. As 80% of the corpus is invested in income-generating and completed projects, it also lowers the investment risk. Risks of investing in REITs\/ InvlTs Listed REITs and InvITs are market-linked instruments, so they can be highly volatile at times. As 90% of the income generated by the REITs is returned to the investors, reinvestments are lower which could weaken the prospects of capital appreciation. Moreover, an investment in the InvlTs involves greater risk as expected returns are based on predictions. The underlying projects also involve political or regulatory risks, and changes in the regulations may result in hurdles for the project. Many also prefer investments in REITs over InvlTs as the former are more liquid because of lower unit price, and investors are usually more familiar with the real estate sector compared to infrastructure. The 2021-22 Union Budget has made investing in REITs and InvITs easier. Sebi has also reduced the minimum application value. Earlier minimum application size for REITs and InvITs was Rs 50,000 and Rs 1 lakh, respectively. Now, it has been reduced to Rs 10,000- Rs 15,000, bringing them at par with equity IPO applications. Also, the reduced lot size has made them easily tradable on stock exchanges. The returns on REITs when the investment period is less than one year are considered short-term capital gains (STCG) and more than one year period are considered as long-term capital gains (LTCG). The STCG is taxed at 15%, whereas LTCG over and above Rs 1 lakh is taxed at a 10% rate. Apart from direct investments in REITs through the stock market, you can also invest in them through mutual fund schemes. If you think you have the required risk appetite and investing in REITs\/InvITs can help you achieve your financial goals, they can offer you a good option to diversify your portfolio. However, you should not hesitate to speak to your financial consultant about investing in this innovative asset class. You should also choose AAA-rated REITs and InvlTs and carefully evaluate the sponsors corporate profile and market standing before finalising your investment decision. The writer is CEO,

Take care of your employees, and everything will take care of itself: Vijay Yalamanchili, Founder & CEO, Keka Technologies

2021年11月16日 0 Comments

The HR personal is key to the policy formation, development, and execution of any organisation. The key guidelines, principles, policies are all formulated by the HR team in line with the company Here come HRMS providers that offer From automation of people processes to creating an engaged and driven culture, they help your teams to adapt, evolve, and scale by working more effectively. An automated HR solution automates HR processes to create an engaged and driven culture. It is all you need to build a great company. Automated HR softwares are a perfect option for businesses and organizations that are looking to graduate from old-fashioned, traditional workforce management practices. Everything is data-driven which helps organizations make smarter decisions. Apart from payroll, even modules like Performance Management, Timesheet, ATS are covered. Employees want everything at their fingertips. Manually, it Automated HR solutions can help you do this and keep `employee experience at the core of progress plans. In conversation with the Financial Express Online Vijay Yalamanchili, Founder CEO, Keka Technologies talks about HRMS, HR strategies and more. Excerpts: How do you define Keka as a performance management provider? Keka means Awesome. Its performance management system is made for your people, by people like you, who care for people in their organization. A PMS that ensures goals arent just set, but also achieved. Lastly, powerful analytics drive up the productivity of your employees, not their dissatisfaction levels. What is the importance of automated HR solutions? Today, if any business wants to thrive, massive efforts need to be put into supporting and nurturing the workforce. All employees desire streamlined processes. They want everything at their fingertips and want it now. Manually, it isnt possible. HR tech can help you do this and keep `employee experience at the core of progress plans. For example, employees are joining from remote locations. Do you really expect them to physically travel thousands of kilometers for the onboarding Why are business-driven HR strategies important? The pandemic has shifted focus towards employee wellbeing. Organizations that have taken care of their employees have come out stronger on the other side. Those that havent done that have perished. For example, when the pandemic happened, remote work suddenly became the norm. A lot of organizations werent prepared for it. Like no attendance system in place, no tracking solutions, no performance management strategy, not even an option to onboard employees remotely. To solve individual challenges, we built custom solutions. Biometric attendance, 100% remote onboarding, paperless documentation are a few of those solutions that weve implemented for our customers. End of the day, whatever the industry, adaptability is the key. If a solution isnt good enough for the existing problems, then any business will be doomed. Adaptability and scalability drive us on the path of sustainable growth, that How can you claim that HR initiatives help in keeping employees HR initiatives will help you check the level of goal alignment in the company. If things arent working, then goal-setting methodologies like OKR, 4DX, SMART, etc., will align all goals and stakeholders in one single direction. For example, lets say your sales department is doing well at work. But one of the members is struggling to achieve his objectives. Here, a manager can check in through a One-on-One meeting to help that employee solve challenges. Another example can be of an organization having a large number of daily workers. They will have random shifts, and also their overtime periods will vary. Here, shift management becomes the key. Instead of entering this information manually on a register and spending hours in the process, an HRMS will instantly give you all this information. Most of the industries have changed widely during the Covid outbreak, what do you think? How much has it changed your industry? Ever since the pandemic happened, remote culture has become a part of our lives. Everything is outcome-driven. Thats what most organizations are focused on: Improving the Work from Home experience of their employees. It helps people focus on the strategic side of the business instead of spending hours on manual tasks. They require energetic employees that can get results, solve challenges and take the organization to the next level. But hiring talent isnt the last step. Building a culture to motivate employees to stay is a far tougher challenge. One, which needs efficient HR processes in Without HR, a company wont have the talent. Without that, the company will stop functioning. Thats why startups are focusing on HR solutions. They want to maximize the potential of every individual at the organization. How Tech is awesome, but it is not the silver bullet. It is merely a helping hand and scales according to an organizations requirements. We dont offer the same solution to every business. We spend time understanding the unique challenges and have continuously built custom solutions for organizational needs. Even our software is built around and centered on your employees. While most traditional HR systems are geared towards making life simple for the administration, we focus on delivering a smooth and seamless user experience to your workers by simplifying complicated workflows. We help employees grow and realize their potential. Finally, why are HR services the heart and soul of any Take care of your employees, and everything will take care of itself. When an organization grows, its workforce plays the most significant role in that journey. Thats why HR processes become important.

Online ordering, changed customer perceptions key trends in food service industry, says Jubilant FoodWorks

2021年9月28日 0 Comments

The trends in the food service industry are expected to turn towards online ordering, changed customer perceptions about product consumption and services with increased prominence on hygiene and safety, according to Jubilant FoodWorks. This will be with an exponential increase in the use of digital solutions as the world deals with the concept of contact-less interaction among people, the company said in its latest annual report. Jubilant FoodWorks (JFL) is the countrys leading quick service restaurants (QSR) operator and master franchise of brands such as Dominos and Dunkin Donuts. Besides, the rising presence of international brands, stronger back-end infrastructure, acceptance of new cuisines, changing lifestyles and aspirations, and the rise of entrepreneurial ventures will fuel growth, it added. It is expanding rapidly due to the high percentage of the young and working population, increased frequency of eating out amid time-pressed schedules, and the growing influence of cross-cultural dietary patterns, owing to the strong presence of international brands, JFL said. The Indian food service industry witnessed exceptional growth in the past decade, it said. Talking about the outlook, JFL said the Indian economy is navigating uncertain times with policy reforms. Moreover, pro-investment measures such as reduced tax rates on new capital investment, lowered interest rates and easy credit dissemination, among others, will yield benefits in the medium-to long-run. Consumption cycle can only be re-invigorated by putting more money in the hands of consumers, it added. Rising population, growing income levels and evolving consumer preferences and lifestyles have opened promising prospects for the food of certain standard and quality, it said. JFL, part of the Jubilant Bhartia group, operates brands like Dominos Pizza, Dunkin Donuts and Hongs Kitchen. It recently added Indian cuisines like biryani and kebabs by launching Ekdum. It has also signed a master franchise and development agreement with Popeyes, an American multinational chain of fried chicken fast-food restaurants, for markets as India, Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan. Factors like younger demographics, increased participation of women workforce, India-centric offerings, value pricing, online food ordering and food delivery are going to be demand drivers of the industry, it said. This will be also helped by the growing acceptance of online delivery in smaller tier-II, III and IV cities. This is particularly led by an increase in the percentage of working population in these cities. These cities have already started to see increased traction in the adoption of online food ordering apps, the report said. JFL said Indias urban cities, across all economic classes, are increasingly opting to eat out during leisure outings. This trend is most popular among the millennial age group between 15 and 34 (around 447 million, 34 per cent of the population). India has the highest number of millennials globally, and the population is expected to grow faster than other groups, which is likely to encourage eating-out behaviour among Indian consumers, JFL said, citing a Technopak report. Moreover, the proportion of women workforce in India has been rising, majorly in the urban areas. Due to these factors, families order more multi-cuisine food via online channels and eat out, thereby contributing to the QSR markets growth, it said, adding value-conscious Indian customers have found interest in combos and value meals common across QSR chains. As on March 31, 2021 JFL was operating 1,360 restaurants of Dominos Pizza and 24 of Dunkin Donuts. Its revenue from operations was Rs 3,268.87 crore in FY21.

Reliance aims at 100 GW renewable energy by 2030, bring hydrogen cost under $1, says Mukesh Ambani

2021年9月21日 0 Comments

Reliance Industries will by 2030 create or enable capacity to generate at least 100 gigawatts of electricity from renewable sources, which can be converted into carbon-free green hydrogen, its chairman Mukesh Ambani said Friday as he outlined a 1-1-1 vision to bring down the cost of hydrogen to under USD 1 per 1 kg in 1 decade. The focus on generating electricity from renewable sources of energy such as solar and wind -will help cut carbon emissions in the worlds third-largest greenhouse gas emitter. The same electricity, when converted into green hydrogen, can replace petrol and diesel in automobiles and other fuels in the industry, helping cut down on the use of fossil fuels, carbon emissions and reduce import dependence. Speaking at the International Climate Summit 2021, Indias richest man said Reliance will pursue the target of bringing down the cost of making green hydrogen to under USD 2 per kg initially and ultimately to bring it down to under USD 1 per kg in a decade. Green hydrogen produced with renewable resources costs between about USD 3 per kg and USD 6.55 a kg. With abundant sunlight, India can generate over 1,000 GW of solar energy on just 0.5 per cent of landmass, he said, adding that the nation has already achieved the 100 GW of installed renewable energy capacity and the target of 175 GW by December 2022 is now well within sight. Further, the nation is targeting 450 GW of renewable energy by 2030. Green Hydrogen is zero-carbon energy. It is the best and cleanest source of energy, which can play a fundamental role in the worlds decarbonisation plans, he said. Hydrogen is the latest buzz for meeting the worlds energy needs. Being the cleanest form of energy, it can be produced from a variety of resources, such as natural gas, biomass, and renewable power like solar and wind. It can be used in cars, in houses, for portable power and in many more applications. Green hydrogen is derived from water electrolysis using renewable energy such as solar or wind. Ambani said hydrogen has a high gravimetric energy density and can be reconverted into electricity and heat with zero emissions. Although the costs of hydrogen from electrolysis today are high, they are expected to fall significantly in the coming years. New technologies are emerging for hydrogen storage and transportation, which will dramatically reduce the cost of distribution, he said. He said efforts are on globally to make green hydrogen most affordable fuel option by bringing down its cost to initially under USD 2 per kg. Let me assure you all that Reliance will aggressively pursue this target and achieve it well before the turn of this decade, he said. I am sure that India can set even more aggressive target of achieving under USD 1 per kg within a decade. This, according to him, will make India the first country globally to achieve USD 1 per 1 kilogram in 1 decade – the 1-1-1 target for green hydrogen. Calling climate change the most daunting challenge facing human civilisation that can threaten the very existence of life on the planet if uncontrolled, Ambani said the only option is rapid transition to a new era of green, clean and renewable energy. India, he said, is determined to achieve azadi (independence) from dependence on fossil energy and become aatmanirbhar (self-reliant) in new and renewal energy. India spends USD 160 billion every year on import oil and gas to meet its energy needs. And its energy needs will only grow. Although Indias per capita energy consumption and emissions are less than half the global average, we are the worlds third-largest emitter of greenhouse gases, he said. Because climate change is a global problem, the clean energy transition calls for the widest possible global cooperation in technology development, investments and fair market access. Outlining the oil-to-telecom conglomerates clean energy plans, he said Reliance has already started developing the green energy complex in Jamnagar in Gujarat with an investment of Rs 75,000 crore. Last year, I had announced our ambitious commitment to make Reliance a net carbon zero company by 2035. This year, I presented our strategy and roadmap for the new energy business, which will be the next big value creation engine for Reliance and India. We have started developing the Dhirubhai Ambani Green Energy Giga Complex over 5,000 acres in Jamnagar. It will be amongst the largest integrated renewable energy manufacturing facilities in the world. This complex will have four Giga Factories, which cover the entire spectrum of renewable energy, he said. The four Giga factories will include an integrated solar photovoltaic module factory, an advanced energy storage battery factory, an electrolyser factory for the production of Green Hydrogen, and a fuel cell factory for converting hydrogen into motive and stationary power. Over the next three years, we will invest Rs 75,000 crore in these initiatives. Reliance will thus create and offer a fully integrated, end-to-end renewables energy ecosystem to India and Indians, he said. Prime Minister Narendra Modi has set the goal to reach 450 GW of renewable energy capacity by 2030. Out of this, Reliance will establish and enable at least 100 GW of solar energy by 2030, he stated. This, he said, will create a pan-India network of kilowatt and megawatt-scale solar energy producers who can produce green hydrogen for local consumption.

NMDC iron ore output grows 44 pc to 15 MT in April-August

2021年8月10日 0 Comments

State-owned NMDC on Tuesday said its iron ore production surged over 44 per cent to 15.02 million tonnes (MT) in April-August 2021. The companys iron ore output was 10.42 MT in the same period last fiscal, NMDC said in a regulatory filing. In August 2021, the company said, its iron ore production rose to 3.06 MT from 1.62 MT a year ago. Its total sales of iron ore during April-August 2021-22 also jumped to 15.67 MT, as against 10.80 MT in the corresponding period last year. The company sold 2.91 MT iron ore in August, compared to 1.79 MT in the year-ago period. Hyderabad-headquartered NMDC, under the Ministry of Steel, is the countrys largest iron ore mining company. It is also involved in the exploration of a wide range of minerals like copper, rock phosphate, limestone, dolomite and gypsum.

After Xiaomi, Realme hikes smartphone prices in India: Check details

2021年7月20日 0 Comments

The prices of certain Realme phones like Realme 8, Realme 8 5G, Realme C11 (2021), Realme C21, and Realme C25s has been hiked in India by up to Rs 1,500. While the Realme C21 (2021) has received a Rs 300 price hike, the Realme C21 and Realme C25s prices have increased by Rs 500. The Realme 8 and Realme 8 5G, on the other hand, have received Rs 1,500 price hikes. The updated prices will be reflected in both online stores like Flipkart and as well as offline. Realme 8 price in India Realme 8 price in India has been revised to Rs 15,999 from Rs 14,499 for the 4GB RAM + 128GB storage variant. The 6GB + 128GB option of the Realme 8 is now priced at Rs 16,999 from Rs 15,499. Further, the top-of-the-line 8GB + 128GB variant of the Realme 8 is priced more than a thousand rupees at Rs 17,999 from Rs 16,499. Realme 8 5G price in India Realme 8 5G price in India starts at Rs 15,499 from Rs 13,999 for the 4GB + 64GB version. All the variants have a price hike of Rs 1,500. The 4GB + 128GB and 8GB + 128GB variants of the Realme 8 is now priced at Rs 16,499 from Rs 14,999 and Rs 18,499 from Rs 16,999, respectively. Realme C11 (2021) price in India The Realme C11 (2021) is now available at Rs 7,299 for the 2GB + 32GB variant from Rs 6,999. The 4GB + 64GB model has also received a hiked pricing of Rs 8,799, up from Rs 8,499. Realme C21, Realme C25s price in India Realme C21 and Realme C25s both have smartphone prices that were hiked by Rs 500. The Realme C21 price has precisely been increased to Rs 8,999 from Rs 8,499 for the 3GB + 32GB variant and Rs 9,999 from Rs 9,499 for the 4GB + 64GB model. The Realme C25s, is available now at Rs. 10,999, up from Rs. 10,499, for the 4GB + 64GB variant. The 4GB + 128GB variant is now priced at Rs. 11,999 for the 4GB + 128GB model that is up from Rs. 11,499. The revision has come into effect starting Sunday, August 29. The price hike was implemented due to the rice in price of the components of the phone. Realme, one of the smartphone marker leaders has earlier revised prices across all segments as well. The company revised pricing of its known models in the recent past, with the most recent change reported in June when price of Realme C25s was hiked by Rs. 500.

Out of 65 crore Covid vaccine doses given so far, SII supplied over 60 crore Covishield doses: Sources

2021年6月1日 0 Comments

With India crossing the 65-crore mark for COVID-19 vaccine doses administered so far, official sources said on Tuesday these include over 60 crore Covishield doses supplied by the Serum Institute. Over 60 crore doses have been supplied by the Pune-based firm to Government of India, state governments and private hospitals so far. The daily COVID-19 vaccinations crossed the 1 crore mark on Tuesday for the second time in five days, taking the total number of doses administered in the country to over 65 crore. Director, Government and Regulatory Affairs at SII, Prakash Kumar Singh, in a communication to NITI Aayog Member (Health) Dr V K Paul and Union Health Secretary Rajesh Bhushan said that when the government had set a target in December, 2020 to administer 60 crore doses of COVID-19 vaccine by August, 2021, some sections of national and international media had expressed serious doubts on whether it would be able to achieve it. You would recall that at that time some sections of national and international media had expressed serious doubts on achieving this target. Today, on the last day of August 2021, it is indeed a proud moment for the entire nation that under the visionary leadership of our prime minister.untiring efforts of the government machinery, our country has not only achieved but also surpassed the target of administering 60 crore doses of COVID-19 vaccine by August, 2021, a source quoted Singh as having communicated. Singh mentioned that the SII alone has supplied more than 60 crore doses of Covishield, with 2.1 crore doses being provided in January, 2.5 crore in February, over 4.73 crore in March, over 6.25 crore in April, more than 5.96 crore in May, more than 9.68 crore in June, over 12.37 crore in July and over 16.92 crore in August. We at Serum Institute of India (SII), under the able leadership of our CEO, Adar C Poonawalla, feel proud to be part of this worlds largest COVID-19 vaccination drive and pleased to share that till date the SII alone has supplied more than 60 crore doses of Covishield to Government of India, state governments and private hospitals. This has only been possible because of visionary leadership of our prime minister, continuous guidance provided by your kind self from time to time, valuable support of Team GoI and farsighted vision of our CEO, Singh is learnt to have stated. The SII is trying to further increase production capacity to supply 20 crore of Covishield doses per month from September 2021 onwards, Singh is learnt to have stated.

Indian unicorns double in 2021; regulatory scene forcing some startups to leave: Report

2021年5月4日 0 Comments

India added three unicorns per month in 2021 to nearly double the overall number of startups valued at over USD 1 billion to 51 as of end-August, a report said on Thursday. Even as, cumbersome regulations are forcing startups to leave India and settle in other countries where they enjoy better treatment, as per the Hurun India, which prepared the list. It can be noted that over the last few years, dedicated efforts have been undertaken to hone the startups ecosystem by the government through flagship initiatives like Startup India. Hurun said the number of gazelles, which are valued over USD 500 million can turn unicorn in two years, was pegged at 32, while there are 54 cheetahs commanding a tag of over USD 200 million, who can achieve the coveted status in four years, as per the Hurun India Future Unicorn list. The future unicorns are valued at USD 36 billion, it said, adding that the leap to being a unicorn can also happen swiftly, as seen in five cheetahs which directly jumped into the unicorn club during the last eight months. Anas Rahman Junaid, managing director and chief researcher at Hurun India, said preparing the list of such companies which get private placements was a difficult task and added that inputs have been taken from venture capital funds. India is home to more than 600 million internet users and is expected to have 900 million users by 2025. The adoption of the internet in rural areas will further compliment the rise of technology start-ups. Fintech companies operating in mobile payments, insurance, blockchain, stock trading and digital lending will grow further to capitalize the internet penetration, he said. At present, India is the third in the list of countries having the most unicorns, trailing the US (396) and China (277), but ahead of UK (32) and Germany (18), it said. Rahman, however, hinted that the number could have been higher in India because some startups have left the country after achieving a certain scale for better regulations and capital availability. Some of the best enterprise SaaS (software as a service) companies are born in India but flipped to the USA. This is a lost opportunity for India and it is important that these start-ups are incentivised to stay back in the country, he said. Among the future Unicorns, e-commerce player Zilingo leads the list, followed by Mobile Premier League and Rebel Foods. At a time when debates rage over the importance of pedigree, the list said IITs and IIMs are the biggest bases to churn out successful entrepreneurs, stating that 17 founders graduated from IIT Delhi, followed by 15 from IIT Bombay and 13 from IIT Kanpur, while IIM-Ahmedabad was the favourite post-graduation school with 13 founders in the list. Bengaluru is home to 31 startups in the list, followed by Delhi NCR at 18 and Mumbai trails with 13. From an age perspective, 11 co-founders of companies in the list were under 30 years, while 15 were above 50 years, it said. The top investors in the Gazelles and Cheetahs in the Hurun India Future Unicorn List 2021 are Sequoia, followed by Tiger Global with 37 and 18 investments, respectively.

Staff Selection Commission releases tentative CGL tier 1 answer key; Find out direct link and how to raise issues

2021年4月13日 0 Comments

SSC CGL Tier 1 Answer Key 2021 Released: The tentative answer key of the Combined Graduate Level Tier 1 examination has been released by the Staff Selection Commission today. The CGL Tier 1 candidate can download the answer key by visiting the website – Should you have any objections or issues pertaining to the answer key, the SSC says that such candidates can submit their formal request by paying Rs 100 for each question. This means that if you have an objection to 3 questions, you may pay Rs 300 and raise the query. It should be noted that the CGL Tier 1 exam, which is a computer-based test, was held by the SSC between August 13 and August 24. The CGL Tier 1 exam was held across the country at various centres designated by the SSC last month. How can I check SSC CGL Tier 1 answer key? On your laptop or phone, visit the Now, on the home page, you would see a tab Now click on that tab and you would get the answer key in a PDF format. It is advisable to get a hard copy of the answer key for further reference. When can I submit my objections to SSC CGL Tier answer key? The answer is now! The SSC has announced that the issues can be submitted till September 9 till 6 pm. Once you have raised the objections after the payment per question, make sure to take the printout as the SSC won Consisting of 100 questions, the SSC CGL Tier 1 exam also has negative markings. Those who clear Tier 1 are then eligible for Tier 2, Tier 3 and finally the skill test.

Pfizer-BioNtech Covid-19 vaccine granted full approval from US-FDA; Here’s what it means

2021年4月6日 0 Comments

Pfizers Covid-19 vaccine became the United States first fully approved vaccine. The twp dose vaccine used for the prevention of Covid-19 among individuals above the age of 16 years or more will be now marketed as Comirnaty. The emergency use authorization (EUA) on the other hand remains for beneficiaries in the age groups 12 to 15 years and for third or booster doses of the vaccine in immunocompromised individuals. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) will take. A call on giving the vaccine a complete nod after new data on its efficacy in the younger population is available. As Pfizer receives FDA What EUA means FDA grants Emergency Use Authorization to a drug only after it has sufficient data that establishes that its potential benefits outweigh its potential risks on use. A EUA application can be considered when there is sufficient data to prove the efficacy of a drug after three phases of clinical trials. EUA granted to Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine was earlier based on efficacy and safety data from randomized, controlled clinal trials conducted on thousands of individuals after which it was made available for administration December 11, 2020, onwards on people above or is 16 years of age. Ts use was expanded further to individuals aged between 15 and 12 from May this year as cases of Delta variant were witnessed. How FDA Evaluations were made based on 22,000 people who randomized received vaccines and the same number who got placebo shots. Based on these results from the trial, BioNTech vaccines were found 91 percent effective in preventing Covid-19. The participants were followed up for four months after the second dose to check if vaccination yielded any side effects and other safety outcomes. But EUA gives the manufacturers only two months for the follow-up process to make the vaccines available to the general public at the earliest. Pfizer followed 12, 000 recipients, for at least six months after administering them vaccine doses. FDA confirms that the vaccine has been proved effective in preventing Covid-19 and its serious outcomes like death or hospitalization.